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Kidney Stones 

Kidney stones are crystal aggregates that form in the urine, in the collecting system of the kidney. They can cause issues with pain, obstruction and urinary tract infection.

Although smaller stones may be managed with surveillance, larger and symptomatic stones may require surgical treatment to remove.

Stones largely form due to a combination of a diet high in salt and animal protein; poor water intake; sedentary lifestyle; and a hot climate. There are however certain medical conditions that can increase your risk of stone formation.


The surgical management of kidneys stones falls broadly into 3 arms:

  • Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)

  • Retrograde Ureterorenoscopy (RIRS)

  • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

Choosing the correct management will depend on the stone size, position, composition and anatomy of the urinary tract. 

All modalities are offered at Tamar Urology.

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